How to Write a Query Letter for a Literary Agent in Traditional Publishing

How to write a query letter

How to write a query letter.

You’re in the process of writing a book, and you’ve decided to try to get it traditionally published.

Most publishing houses won’t work directly with authors, so in order to get your book traditionally published, you need to get a literary agent to represent you.

Your agent’s job is to get your book in front of editors and negotiate your book deal as well as any other rights (foreign, film, etc.).

The first step landing an agent is to write your book (if you’re writing nonfiction, you would write a detailed book proposal). The next step is to compile a list of literary agents whom you may want to work with.

Once you’ve gathered a list of agents to contact, you can start working on your query letter. Read more

Indie Authors: Check Out the Self Publishing Roundtable

self publishing roundtableIf you’re an indie author–or if you ever plan on becoming an indie author–then you’ll want to check out the Self Publishing Roundtable, a weekly podcast devoted to independent authors and book publishing.

The show started out as a weekly roundup and discussion of the latest news in self publishing but has since evolved into an interview format with some of the most successful indie authors in publishing sharing their experiences and offering tips and insights on self publishing.

From breakout, best-selling indie author Hugh Howey to New York Times and USA Today best-selling author Denise Grover Swank, the Self Publishing Roundtable features an array of experts in indie publishing. The show covers a broad spectrum of topics from writing practices to strategies for marketing self-published books. Read more

How to Find and Choose a Literary Agent

Find and choose a literary agent

Find and choose a literary agent.

If you’ve decided traditional publishing is right for you, then you’ll probably need to find a literary agent.

A literary agent represents your interests and should act as your advocate. Your literary agent will shop your book around to publishing houses and try to land a publishing deal for you. Before doing this, some agents will help you prepare your book to ensure the best possible presentation to publishing houses. For all this, the agent gets a cut of the profits from your advance and royalties.

In addition to selling the publishing rights to your book, an agent may also sell audio, film, and foreign rights, although you may need different agents to represent different types of rights. If you’re an author, you’ll start with a literary agent and may later need a Hollywood agent if you want to try to sell your story to a film studio.

Read more

A Self-Publishing Checklist for First-Time Authors

Self-publishing checklist

Self-publishing checklist for first-time authors.

Writing a book is hard enough. When you self-publish, your workload multiplies exponentially.

For first-time, self-publishing authors, the work involved can be particularly daunting. You’re taking on a process that is traditionally completed by a team of experienced professionals, and since it’s your first time, you don’t know what you’re doing or how to do it. Hopefully, today’s checklist will provide you with some basic guidelines to help you develop a solid plan that you can use to self-publish your first book.

Self-Publishing Checklist

This checklist is meant as an overview, a basic list of tasks and projects you should complete when you self-publish a book. You may need to work on some of these steps simultaneously. For example, while you’re revising your book, you might want to start the process of building your platform. While you’re working on the cover and formatting, you might want to start creating a marketing plan.

1. Write the best book possible.

There are many ways to approach writing. Some authors write for the market, going after whatever genre is most popular at any given time. Others write whatever moves them. I’m a firm believer in writing the book you want to read. You might write with an outline or you might write by the seat of your pants. Do it alone or collaborate with a partner. But whatever approach you use, you should write the best book you possibly can, a book you can be proud of. Writing the best book includes everything from drafting and revisions to working with beta readers and editors.

2. Line up your service providers and vendors.

As you go through the self-publishing process, there will be projects you can tackle yourself and projects you’ll need to hire out. You might be able to set up your own website but if you lack graphic design skills, you’ll probably want to hire someone to design your book cover. Maybe you can format your own book, but you need someone to help you learn your way around social media. For every step in the process, there are experts out there who can assist you. The decisions you make about which tasks to hire out will depend on your skills, schedule, and budget. One cost you should definitely plan on would be an editor. There are a range of edits you can get from developmental editing to line editing (proofreading). At the very least, you should have a professional proofread your manuscript before you put it up for sale. Be sure to find and contact these service providers in advance so they can fit your project into their schedules.

3. Get a website, and start building your platform.

Building a platform takes time–a lot of time. That’s why it’s something you should start working on early in the publishing process. Your best marketing tool will be your website, so start with that. It will be your online headquarters for sharing news and announcements (like your book launch), providing information about yourself (your author’s bio), and connecting with fans. One of the best ways to build a platform is to start a blog. Use it to speak to your target readership. You should also venture into social media. Try setting up one account at a time. Give yourself a few weeks to become familiar with each one before diving into the next.

4. Develop your marketing plan and materials.

Marketing a book is like writing a book–there are many ways to do it. You might launch your book with nothing more than a quiet announcement on your blog. Or you might do a hard launch, complete with advertising and a blog tour. From pricing and giveaways to submitting your book to reviewers and developing a social media marketing plan, there is no end to the options available to you when it comes to marketing your book. That’s why it’s a good idea to set aside time in advance to learn about your many options, and then figure out which ones are the best match for you and your book. You’re far more likely to find your readers if you have a marketing plan in place before the book becomes available.

5. Get a good cover.

Self-published authors have been ridiculed for their low-quality book covers. You know what they say: don’t judge a book by its cover. The problem is that most people do judge a book by its cover, at least they do initially. Maybe you’ve written a brilliant novel. It won’t matter if your cover was designed by an amateur. Potential readers will take one look and decide your book is unprofessional, and they’ll pass it up, maybe even for a book that’s not as good but has a better cover. If you’re not a graphic designer, the cost of the cover could be a significant burden. Fortunately, there are affordable options out there, including pre-designed covers that may not be customized to your taste, but at least they look professional. Just remember this: you’re investing in your future as a career author.

6. Get your book professionally edited.

Speaking of investing in your book–do not skimp on editing. I would say editing is even more important than a decent cover, but it really depends (as with all things in self-publishing) on your skill set. Typos and blatant errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation tend to yank readers out of the story and have also been known to garner tons of negative reviews. Don’t let your excellent story suffer because you didn’t bother to get it properly edited. If you’re working with a tight budget, join a writing group and look for beta readers with strong editing skills, but be prepared to give back by providing critiques for others.

7. Plan to format your book for various editions and platforms.

You should put out paper and electronic editions of your book, and you should publish your book across as many platforms (stores) as possible. This ensures that your book is available and accessible to anyone who wants it. Each version needs its own ISBN and unique formatting. You’ll also need to render a .mobi file for the Kindle and an .epub for everything else. You may even want to do a hardcover, and eventually, an audio book. You might want to publish internationally or get your book translated into multiple languages. Decide ahead of time what formats and platforms you’ll publish to initially. You might want to get print and paper out immediately and tackle the audio book later. Be aware that formatting can be tedious and there’s a learning curve. Be prepared to spend some time formatting your own books, but also know that there are lots of service providers out there who will format your book for you, and they can be quite affordable.

8. Get ready to launch!

Some authors publish their book and immediately shift their focus to writing the next one. Other authors take some time to do a big launch and draw readers to the first book before delving into the next one. The luckiest authors have enough time to do both. The great thing about self-publishing is that you can choose a launch strategy that works for you and your book. Sometimes, a single book (especially one that took a long time to write) warrants a hard launch with lots of buzz. Other books (especially books that are the first in a series) might perform better once several books are available. Do some research, find out what strategies have worked for other authors, and plan your launch accordingly.

9. Get busy promoting.

One you hit the publish button, your book will become available to tens of millions of readers, but they won’t know it unless you tell them about it. Whether you start promoting your book immediately or wait until you have a few books out before you start promoting, you’ll eventually have to come up with a marketing campaign, and then you’ll need to execute that campaign. Marketing a book is a lot of work but the payoff can be worth it if you do it right. Here are some ideas to consider: contests and giveaways, newsletters, blog tours, social media, sales, advertisements, and submitting to reviewers.

Make That List and Check it Twice

You writing and publishing experience will go a lot smoother if you work from a plan. By starting with a plan, you can establish a series of deadlines for your project. Whatever you do, don’t rush your book to publication. Give it the time and attention it deserves.

Remember, the writing should always come first. Don’t get so caught up in planning everything else that you don’t leave any time to get your writing done. But do your research and make a plan, so you can check off every task one by one. And then get busy on your next book.

Good luck with your self-publishing projects, and keep writing!

Before Writing a Query Letter: Preparing to Submit Fiction to Agents and Editors

before writing a query letter

Before writing a query letter…

You’ve finished your book, and you’re ready to get it published. What should you do first?

If you’ve opted to get your book traditionally published, you’ll need to send query letters in order to land a publishing deal, but should you query agents? Editors? Publishing houses?

Before sending a query letter–before you even write a query letter–there are some important steps you need to take.

Weigh Your Publishing Options

Whatever route you take to publication, you should be prepared by having a good understanding of the steps involved. Self-publishing is radically different from traditional publishing. Getting fiction published with a traditional publisher requires a different process than getting nonfiction published. Once you’ve decided to write a book that you intend to publish, it’s a good idea to familiarize yourself with the publishing landscape so you know all your options.

This is something you might want to do while you’re writing your book. Set aside a little time each week to study the publishing industry and put together a comprehensive plan for taking your book from draft to publication. Start paying attention to the publishers that are identified on the title and copyright pages of the books you read. Visit their websites. Research publishing contracts so you can adequately set your expectations with regard to the advance and royalties you’ll receive, the rights you’ll give up, and which aspects of the creative process you’ll control.

You should also conduct the same research on agents. You should understand what role an agent plays in getting a book published. Some agents will get more involved than others, even going so far as to provide edits to make a book more salable.

Tip: If possible, talk to traditionally published authors to learn about their experiences with agents and publishers. You can also find interviews and articles online in which authors talk about their experiences.

Polish That Manuscript

How would you feel if someone served you a half baked cake at a party? That’s how agents, editors, and even beta readers feel when you hand them an unpolished manuscript.

No, the manuscript you submit won’t be perfect. It will undergo revisions. But you should get it as polished as you can before you even think about writing a query letter, let alone sending one.

Consider hiring a developmental editor to make sure the story is tight. Take several editing passes at the text and find a friend with good grammar skills to help you weed out typos and other errors. Most importantly, get feedback from a handful of beta readers to get an idea of how the book presents to its audience. Apply their feedback to the manuscript and clean it up before you start approaching agents and publishers. Put your best writing forward!

Identify the Target Audience and Genre for Your Book

Many agents and publishing houses, especially imprints, specialize in particular genres. Some authors aren’t crazy about this approach, because they don’t want to be locked into genre tropes, which can become formulaic. You don’t have to worry about the genre when you’re writing the book, but once it’s done, you’ll need to figure out which genre it fits into. If your book can’t be categorized, then maybe you’d be better off self-publishing.

Despite the limitations it imposes, genre is essential for finding readers. Most of us have preferences that are tied to genre. You might like historical fiction. Me? I like science fiction. While most readers seem to read across various genres, when they go in search of a new book, they often use genre to find the book that suits their mood. I prefer science fiction, but sometimes I’m in the mood for mystery or literary fiction. I visit the shelves that correspond to my mood.

If you’re unfamiliar with genres, visit online bookstores and browse their categories. Find books that are similar to the one you’re writing and see what genre they are filed under.

Select Agents, Publishing Houses, or Small Presses

If your goal is to get your book published with a large house, you’ll need to land an agent first. Many small presses will accept queries directly from authors. Therefore, it’s important to establish your publishing goals in advance.

There are numerous ways to find literary agents and publishers. One good place to start is in the acknowledgements section of books that are similar to yours. Often, authors will thank their agents, so this is a good place to start building a list of prospects. You can also purchase publications that list agents or conduct searches online.

Here are some considerations to keep in mind while compiling a list of prospective agents:

  • Make sure they work in your genre.
  • Look for a list of authors they’ve represented or books they’ve sold.
  • Make sure they are currently accepting blind queries.
  • Check some of the books they’ve represented to see which publishing houses they’ve sold to.
  • Conduct an in-depth online search to see what, if anything, is being reported about them.

I recommend documenting all these details so in the future, you don’t have to repeat the research you’ve done.

Understand the Submission Requirements You Need to Follow

Some agents might accept simultaneous submissions; others will not. Some will have very strict rules about what to include in your query letter; others will be vague. Some want you to contact them electronically; others may want you to use snail mail.

The most important step in the entire process is this: understand the submission requirements you need to follow.

These requirements will vary slightly from agent to agent, editor to editor, and publisher to publisher. They also might help you prioritize the agents you want to submit your work to. Some submission requirements might be more prohibitive than others.

Make Sure You Have a Backup Plan

If you believe in your book, make sure you have a backup plan in place. Agents and editors are swarmed with queries and submissions, and there’s no way to know why yours might get rejected. They might have just read a book similar to yours–or maybe they’ve seen several dozen like yours that week. They are humans and have bad days and could very well have made the wrong decision when they decided not to give your book a shot, or while your book may be good, it may not be to their taste.

Tip: You should expect rejection, since it’s statistically more likely than receiving an offer. If you do receive a rejection, don’t give up. Keep submitting, but make sure you also have considered alternative routes to publication.

At the beginning of the submission process, establish some limits. Will you keep submitting for a year? Two? Will you query a dozen agents? A hundred? If you’ve got your sights set on a big publishing house, will you try small presses if you can’t land the deal you originally envisioned? Are you willing to self-publish if the traditional route doesn’t get you to your destination?

Next Steps

Once you’ve laid all this groundwork, you’re ready to start working on your query letter. That’s another article altogether, but you should start by reading as many sample query letters as possible to familiarize yourself with acceptable styles and formats.

There’s never been a more exciting time to be an author. We have more options and more paths to publication than ever before in history. Take advantage of living in this great era of publishing by arming yourself with knowledge and information about all sides of the industry. Be aware of what you’re getting into before you start querying and be prepared when you start the querying process.

Putting Readers First: Self-Publishing in Digital and Print

self publishing digital and print

Are you self publishing in digital and print?

It is ridiculously easy to self-publish an ebook, especially if you are using Scrivener. You can go from a final draft to a fully published book with just a few clicks. And if it turns out to be a hassle, there are plenty of professionals offering formatting services at affordable rates.

But ebooks require either an electronic reader or an app on a tablet or smart phone. Some readers haven’t made the switch to e-readers and many more find it uncomfortable to read on their phones. And let’s face it–a lot of people are holding out on making the switch to digital because they love the smell and feel of a real book in their hands or because they prefer a physical product over a digital one.

Yet many self-published authors are opting out of print publishing altogether. It is an extra step in the publishing process and it’s not an easy step if you’re not a wiz with formatting. Since most self-published authors make most (or all) of their sales in the online space, where e-books are the preferred format, it might be worth it to lose a few sales in order to focus resources elsewhere (writing the next book, marketing, etc.).

But is that really the wisest decision?

The Benefits of Publishing in Print

There are countless benefits to publishing in print, the least of which is expanding your sales opportunities. Here are a few reasons self-published authors shouldn’t skip out on print:

  • You can hand paperbacks and hardcovers to loved ones, acquaintances, and random strangers. You can bring them to bookstores, libraries, and networking events. When it comes to in-person marketing, nothing beats a physical product that you can hand out.
  • Get your book into circulation: people will share, show, and lend physical books. It’s sitting around their house or they’re holding it on the bus, making it visible to others. That’s free marketing!
  • Sure, you could scan your signature and paste it into your ebook, but that’s not a real autograph, is it? You’ll need a print version if you want to autograph copies of your book, which are great for giveaways and a good way to build a loyal fan base.
  • Lots of people have e-readers but not everyone has one. Many people still prefer print for a variety of reasons. By refusing to make your book available in print, you are aliening readers and potential fans of your work. Even if they are a small percentage of your readers, they still matter.
  • When readers visit a site like Amazon and your book is only available as an ebook, it doesn’t look very professional.
  • Also, a lower priced ebook looks like a good deal next to a higher priced print book.
  • Print books make far better gifts than ebooks.
  • Kids are still more likely to read a print book than an ebook.

The most important reason to publish in print is for your readers. Even if you’re only making one or two print sales per month, it’s important to remember that those print books might get passed along to friends and even used bookstores, exposing your work to new readers. As you write more books, you’ll make more sales. And you never know–one of those print readers might have a large audience of their own and through word of mouth, one print sale could easily translate into a hundred digital sales.

If you ask me, the benefits of producing a print book far outweigh the hassle or cost that it might incur.

Why Your Print Sales Might Be So Low

Many self-published authors say they don’t publish in print because when they’ve tried it, the sales didn’t justify the hassle of creating a print version of their book.

My own print sales are about 25% of my total sales, which is a considerable percentage. I know that my books have been used in classrooms and writing retreats, and it’s likely that my print sales are so high because my books are learning resources. However, I suspect that the reason my print books sell so well has more to do with marketing.

You see, if you don’t advertise the fact that your books are available in print, then your print sales will lag. I’ve seen several authors who refuse to publish in print (some of whom also limit themselves to Amazon, but that’s another topic for another day) because historically, their print sales have been low–sometimes only one or two copies over several months. But in every case, I also noticed that those authors were not letting their readers know that their books were available in print. I think those authors might have been selling themselves and their books short. If you only point people to your ebooks, that’s all they’re going to find.

Losing Sales

Oddly, a few writers self-publish in print only. Just a few weeks ago, I found a book that I wanted to read. It was available in ebook but not for my e-reader (Kindle) and there was a paperback version on Amazon. At first I thought it was a new book–maybe the author hadn’t gotten the Kindle version out yet. But then I found that the book had been out for many months. It looked to me like the Kindle version was not forthcoming at all.

That author lost a sale, because although I wanted to read the book, I wasn’t so eager to read it that I was willing to inconvenience myself.

In self-publishing, we need to take advantage of every opportunity and do our best to meet our readers’ demands. That means producing great books, pricing them competitively, and making them as widely available as possible.

What are your thoughts? Have you ever self-published a book? Did you publish an e-book, print book, or both? Jump into the conversation by leaving a comment, and keep writing!

Hybrid Publishing: The Best of Both Worlds

hybrid publishing

Use hybrid publishing to your advantage.

We’ve talked about how to decide whether self-publishing or traditional publishing is right for you, but what if neither feels quite right? What if you want to do both?

The newest model of publishing to have emerged is hybrid publishing, a combination of self-publishing and traditional publishing that empowers both authors and publishers.

Hybrid publishing is dynamic. While there are clear steps, benefits, and drawbacks to the distinctly separate models of self-publishing and traditional publishing, hybrid publishing allows authors and publishers to take what they want from each model in order to create a tailored, innovative approach to publishing, which offers mutual benefits to all parties involved.

How Hybrid Publishing Works

Hybrid publishing is difficult to define because there are so many possible variations. It’s safe to that say that it’s neither self-publishing nor traditional publishing but any combination of the two, and this approach can be applied not just to a single project but to an entire career.

Here are some examples of hybrid publishing:

  • An author whose career started with traditionally published books decides to try self-publishing. From there, the author publishes some books traditionally and self-publishes others.
  • An author who has self-published several books is picked up by a traditional publisher.
  • An author might get a traditional book deal for print publishing but continue to self-publish e-books, retaining all digital rights and royalties.

These new hybrid models are changing the face of publishing. So what are the benefits?

Benefits of Hybrid Publishing

Publishers benefit from hybrid publishing because they can sign authors who have already self-published and established an audience. That’s a lower-risk investment for the publisher because they know the books will sell to existing readers and fans. Currently, every new author is a risk for a publishing house. There’s no way to tell which books will make the best-seller lists and which ones will bomb. Under this model, it’s less likely that a book or author will suffer low sales because there’s already an audience ready, willing, and able to buy.

When authors self-publish, they earn a larger percentage of royalties as long as they price their books accordingly. With Amazon Kindle, for example, if you price your book between $2.99 and $9.99, your royalties are 70%. That’s an awful lot compared to traditionally published authors, whose royalties are about 7-10% for a paperback and 25% for an e-book. Authors who have already published traditionally can leverage their existing audience by self-publishing a few books and enjoying larger royalties on their self-published titles.

Recently, breakout author Hugh Howey got a print publishing deal and was able to keep his digital rights, which means he will continue to collect larger royalties on his e-books (up to 70% for Kindle sales) than most traditionally published authors receive. The expense of printing, distribution, and storage is non-existent for e-books, so it makes sense for authors to keep a larger share of the royalties.

Is Hybrid Publishing the Future?

Think about the process of publishing a book by a new author from the publisher’s perspective: they have to hire a staff to read query letters, book excerpts, and full texts. They pay editors to review selected texts and decide whether they’re worth publishing. They pay a team of editors, cover designers, book layout designers, printers, and distributors, all with absolutely no way of knowing if the book will find its audience. From a business perspective, that’s a pretty risky model, especially when you consider the fact that most agents and editors admit they have no idea why some books make a splash while others sink to the bottom of the bargain bin.

There must be tremendous savings in paying someone to peruse self-published books online instead of using the traditional query process. Recruiters can sift through ratings and reviews, look at samples of texts, and determine the likely success they’ll enjoy with certain authors. Meanwhile, authors who self-publish are honing both their writing and marketing skills on a smaller stage, so if and when they’re picked up by a publisher, they have the proper experience to reach out to the broader audience that the publisher will expose them to. It’s a win-win.

Does it really make sense for publishers to continue footing the expense of publishing new authors? I don’t think so. Does it really make sense for authors to go through the grueling process of querying agents and editors when that time could be spent getting their books to market and building the foundation of a long-term career? Probably not.

Hybrid publishing offers authors and publishers the best of both worlds. By lowering the risk for publishers and raising the earnings potential for authors, it’s an ideal model.

Self-Publishing or Traditional Publishing: What’s Right for You?

self-publishing or traditional

Are you self-publishing or traditional publishing?

If you’ve finished a book or are working on one, then you’re probably thinking about how to publish it. There are two obvious choices: self-publish or try to get it published by a traditional publisher.

There was a time when self-publishing was a last resort, a final attempt after an author had accumulated piles of rejections. In recent years, technology has made self-publishing easy and accessible. As a result, reams of authors have elected to self-publish without even bothering with traditional publishing.

The stigma of self-publishing has faded but many authors still diligently query agents and publishers, hoping to get their books published by traditional means.

The good news is that now authors have a choice. It’s no longer a matter of choosing the better option but choosing the option that is right for you.

There are many factors to consider in deciding between self-publishing or traditional publishing. Let’s look at the benefits of both forms of publishing.

Benefits of Self-Publishing

Creative Control
When you go with a traditional publisher, they gain certain rights to your book. Contracts vary but as an example, they’re going to decide what cover and title go on your book. I’ve heard from authors who hated their book covers and/or titles. If you get a great agent and editor or if you’re lucky enough to get a cover and title you like, this may not be a problem. Publishers also own printing and distribution rights for a specified amount of time. Under the self-publishing model, authors retain all rights and creative control of their work.
Agents and publishers cost a lot of money. Everyone gets a cut from the editors, proofreaders, cover designers, layout designers, distributors, etc… The list goes on and on. That means traditionally published books cost more, and that cost gets passed on to readers. The average self-published ebook novel is $2.99. Traditionally published: about $10-15.
You’re sharing profits with everyone involved in producing your book, so you get a much smaller royalty. An average advance these days could be as low as $5000 and royalties are about 7-10% for a paperback and 25% for an ebook. When you self-publish, there’s no advance (in fact, you’ll incur some costs) but royalties are much higher. If you price your Kindle ebook at $2.99-9.99, the royalties are 70%. You set the price of your books, so you determine how much you make off each copy sold.
I was sort of horrified years ago, when I learned that for most new authors, publishers don’t do a lot of marketing. You’re lucky if they send you on a book tour. Many traditionally published authors hire their own PR firms and marketing professionals and pay for these costs out of pocket. Again, this can vary depending on your contract but unless you have what they think is going to be a blockbuster (or if you’re already hugely successful), traditional publishers don’t usually invest a whole lot in marketing a new author. That’s not to say they won’t help with any marketing but from the authors I’ve heard from, when it comes to marketing, there’s not a lot of difference between traditional and self-publishing. Either way, most of the burden is on the author.
After you finish writing your book, it can take months to get an agent (if you get one at all), and then it can take many more months to sell it to a publisher (if you sell it at all). From there, it’s usually about a year before the book hits stores. I’d say most authors wait 1-2 years (minimum) between finishing their book to seeing it in stores—and that’s if everything moves along on schedule. Some of that time is useful; you can start working on your next book and you can get your marketing plan going. Some authors don’t mind but others are frustrated, especially when that 1-2 years turns into 3-4 years or more.
Up until a couple of years ago, agents and publishers acted as gatekeepers. They and they alone decided whose books got published. Some people say they prevented bad writing from hitting the market, but Harry Potter was rejected at least eight times, so they were obviously also preventing some good stuff from hitting the market. Lots of books that went on to be successful were originally rejected. What this tells us is that publishers don’t necessarily know what they’re doing when it comes to picking good or salable books. Also, and this is my personal opinion, I’ve come across some traditionally published books that I thought were terrible. Think about it: a book can get rejected because whoever read it that day was in a bad mood, didn’t like one of the characters, just read a similar story, or simply didn’t care for the tone, style, or voice. 

Self-publishing has opened the gates and it’s true that a lot of low quality books have hit the market—poorly written manuscripts packed with typos and just plain bad storytelling (and awful covers). But readers are smart. They know how to read the first few pages, check the reviews, and filter the good stuff from the bad stuff.

Benefits of Traditional Publishing

Even though they don’t always get it right, agents and publishers make a living choosing books that they think readers will embrace. Their job is to find the good stuff and get it to market. So traditionally published books do still have that extra stamp of validation and credibility. The question is: does the average reader check to see who published a book before they buy it?
Editing, Design, and Formatting
In the traditional publishing model, books go through several rounds of revisions as part of the deal whereas self-published authors take on the cost of hiring their own editors. The same is true for book covers: most self-published authors are not artists and have to hire someone to make the cover. As a rule, it’s fair to say that publishers know better than authors what cover or title a book needs. Some self-published authors also pay someone to format their books for print and electronic publishing. Many do it themselves (there are plenty of tutorials available online) but it’s pretty tedious work, especially if you’d rather be writing.
Not only are publishers more experienced in the editing, design, and formatting steps in the book production process, they also have a team of professional editors and designers.
Some authors, especially hugely successful authors, do get a marketing campaigns via traditional publishing. Marketing is half the work of selling books (the other half is writing them), so this is a crucial point: if your publisher helps considerably with marketing, it could save you a lot of time and money compared to self-publishing. But a marketing budget is not something new authors can count on. There may be downstream marketing disadvantages to self-publishing: for example, some reviewers who won’t look at self-published books and some bookstores won’t carry them.
If you want to get your book into brick-and-mortar bookstores, it’s a lot harder when you self-publish. Traditional publishers already have a print-and-distribution system in place, so they’ll make sure your book is available wherever books are sold, online and offline. But if you self-publish, your books will primarily be available in the online space, which limits potential sales. Some self-published authors have successfully gotten their books into physical bookstores, but it requires a lot of legwork.

Self-Publishing or Traditional Publishing?

Ultimately, each author has to decide which model is right for them. The decision between self-publishing or traditional publishing is fraught with considerations, mostly dealing with time and money. Are you in a hurry to get your book out? Self-publishing is going to be a lot quicker. Do you lack design skills and can’t afford to hire a cover designer? Traditional publishing would probably be a better option for you.

Have you ever published a book? Did you choose self-publishing or traditional publishing? Why? When you do publish a book, which model are you more likely to use?

A Writer’s Guide to Types of Publishing Companies

types of publishing

A guide to various types of publishing companies.

Publishing used to be simple. A writer wrote a proposal or manuscript and then found an agent who was willing to represent the book. The agent shopped it around and sold it to a publisher. The writer received an advance and then the agent, publisher, and writer worked together until the book appeared in book stores about a year later.

That model hasn’t gone away. You can still find an agent to help you get published and you can still aim for selling your book to a publishing house, but technology has opened more doors for writers.

Terms get thrown around, like traditional publishing, legacy publishing, self-publishing, vanity publishing, and indie publishing. But what does it all mean? What’s the difference between self-publishing and indie publishing? Is there a difference? Why should we care?

Types of Publishing Companies

Most writers hope to eventually publish a book. While many writers already have their heart set on traditional publishing or have their minds made up to self-publish, it’s helpful to take a close look at all available options before making a final decision.

As a writer, the sooner you start studying the publishing process, the better, because the type of publishing you choose can affect how you write and what you do while writing. For example, if you decide to self-publish, you might want to start building your marketing platform months before your book is finished.

To get started, it’s helpful to familiarize yourself with the types of publishing companies that you can choose from. This isn’t an definitive guide; it’s meant as an overview to introduce various types of publishing companies and the options that are available to you as a writer.

Traditional Publishing

Traditional publishing is exactly what it sounds like: the traditional way to publish books. Nonfiction writers submit a proposal (which often includes a few sample chapters) and fiction writers submit a manuscript to agents until they find one who is willing to represent them. The agent then sells the proposal or book to a publisher. Once the book is sold, the author receives an advance (sum of money). At this point, nonfiction writers write the rest of the book. Writers work through revisions with editors at the publishing house. The publisher handles the book cover, printing and formatting, and distribution. The publisher may also handle some marketing. Traditional publishers are also called commercial publishers.

Traditional publishing is sometimes called legacy publishing, a term that is slightly controversial because it has conflicting connotations. I’ve heard people describe legacy publishing as literary or highbrow, outdated and inefficient or dignified and respectable. I’d say the jury is still out on what legacy publishing implies, so my recommendation is to stick with the term traditional publishing for this model.

Further reading: Nine Reasons Authors Still Choose Traditional Publishing

Vanity Publishing

Vanity publishing has a fairly bad reputation in the literary world. In this model, the writer pays to have a book published. Whereas traditional publishers pick and choose which books they send to market, vanity publishers don’t require an approval or editorial process. Whereas traditional publishers are in the business of selling books, vanity presses are in the business of printing books.

Some vanity presses may offer services in the areas of editing, formatting, and cover design. Vanity presses can be used for self-publishing; in this sense, the vanity press provides printing and binding. The author is responsible for all editing, design, distribution, and marketing. The bad rap comes from vanity presses presenting themselves in a somewhat misleading way, often making authors feel like their books are being published traditionally. Writers who are not knowledgeable about publishing have felt scammed by vanity presses. However, these publishers do have a role in our society. For example, many people use vanity presses to publish books of a personal nature, such as family trees and family bibles, works that would not be publicly distributed and would only have a small print run.

Futher reading: Where Publishing Gets Practical

Subsidy Publishing

Subsidy publishing falls somewhere between traditional and vanity publishers. Subsidy publishers enter a partnership with authors. Under this model, authors keep most (or all) rights and ownership of the work. Whereas traditional publishers pay authors an advance, in subsidy publishing, authors must make a financial investment in the cost of publishing. The publisher handles production and distribution and provides funding for sales and marketing. Authors start earning royalties immediately since the books don’t have to earn out an advance. It’s easier to get a subsidy publishing deal since these types of publishing companies aren’t as selective as traditional publishers. Whereas vanity presses earn profits from printing books, subsidy publishers (like traditional publishers) earn profits from book sales.

Further reading: Subsidy Publishing vs. Self-Publishing


With self-publishing, the publishing company is the writer. Self-published authors are solely responsible for writing, editing, proofreading, cover design, layout, distribution, and marketing. That’s not to say self-published writers do it alone. Self-published authors with business savvy know their own limitations and hire out different aspects of the production process. They may work with freelance editors and cover designers and will usually publish their books on platforms that include distribution. For example, Amazon provides print-on-demand publishing through Create Space and distributes e-books online. Authors are solely responsible for all publishing costs but also retain full creative control and all ownership and rights to the work.

Further reading: A Newbie’s Guide to Publishing (Joe Konrath is an advocate for ebooks and self-publishing; this site is packed with articles and information on self-publishing)

A Few More Terms You Should Know

There are a few other types of publishing companies and publishing-related terms that all writers should know:

Print-on-Demand Publishing: Once a book is completed, copies are printed as they are ordered.

Indie Publishing: Indie publishing has taken on two meanings. It can refer to a small press publisher or it can refer to self-publishing. I imagine that in the coming years, it will settle into one definition or the other, depending on how we all use it.

Small Presses: Most commercial publishers are big businesses or are owned by larger, corporate conglomerates. Small presses are small businesses that usually specialize in certain genres or topics and produce and distribute in smaller quantities than big publishing houses. Many small presses work directly with authors and don’t include agents in the process.

University Presses: These presses are nonprofit, usually print academic works, and are run by universities and colleges. They often publish literary magazines and journals as well as textbooks and creative works.

Publishing is an Evolving Business

The world of publishing is currently undergoing dramatic changes. The companies are changing and new models are emerging. There’s no telling what publishing will look like when the dust settles. In the meantime, we writers must do our best to stay informed about standards and trends so we can make the best decisions when the time comes to publish our own work.

Nine Reasons Authors Still Choose Traditional Publishing

getting published choosing traditional publishing

Choosing traditional publishing for getting published.

We all come to writing for love of the craft. Some of us are storytellers, others are wordsmiths. Some of us have ideas we want to share. But for all of us, it starts with writing.

Once it’s time to think about publishing, everything changes. We have to think about legal issues, like contracts and copyright. We have to consider artwork for book covers. How do we get our books printed and produced? How do we get them into stores? How do we get our writing into the hands of readers?

For centuries, all these considerations have belonged to the publishing industry. Authors wrote the books, did interviews and book tours, but much of the work that didn’t involve writing was handled by the publisher. At the very least, the publisher provided guidelines and navigated writers through the process.

Today, self-publishing has put a tremendous amount of power and control back into the hands of writers. It’s your story. Your poetry. Your idea. If you want, you can retain total control of it. But for many authors, traditional publishing still gives writers the support and guidance they need to get through the publishing process.

Why Authors Want Traditional Publishing

Historically, self-publishing was a last resort, an act of desperation by a writer whose work had been rejected countless times. Now, with the advent of the Internet and ebooks, writers are skipping the submission process entirely and actively choosing to self-publish their books. But for many (probably most), traditional publishing is still the most desired route to publication.

Here’s why:

  1. Validation: when an agent agrees to represent your book and when an editor buys it, you will undoubtedly feel validated. After all, squeaking through the gates of traditional publishing is like getting membership to an exclusive club because your book has been chosen among thousands of rejections.
  2. Advance: we publish either to reach readers or to make a living with our writing (most of us want both). When you sell your book to a publisher, you get an advance, a sum of money averaging somewhere between $5000 and $15,000 for an unknown, first-time author.
  3. Editing: it’s inadvisable for writers to polish (edit, proof) their own work and it’s also not the best idea to hand this task over to friends or family. Hiring a professional editor for a full-length manuscript can be costly (expect to pay well over $1000 at the low end). Publishers have in-house editors and proofreaders who will help you iron out the kinks and polish the prose.
  4. Cover: most authors are not artists or designers, which explains the barrage of hideous covers on self-published books. A traditional publisher will most certainly assume full control of the cover but they’ll also make sure it’s rendered by a professional designer. In other words, your book will look professional, not cobbled together.
  5. Print and production: before going to print or ebook production, the manuscript has to be formatted and while it may look easy, laying out a book is no small task. Publishers provide book designers to compile an aesthetically pleasing design and optimum reader experience. Plus, they handle the print run. Most self-published authors don’t even bother with print and book reviews often complain about poorly formatted manuscripts.
  6. Distribution: have you ever wondered about the process that takes books from the printer to the book stores? If you self-publish, your book will probably be limited to online book stores. But a publisher will get your book distributed online and in brick-and-mortar stores, so you get greater exposure to readers.
  7. Marketing: marketing only gets one spot on this list but it’s really a key factor in a book’s success whether that book is self-published or traditionally published. If your book is published traditionally, you’ll be heavily involved in marketing but at least you’ll get guidance and support. Some authors say that even with traditional publishers, most of the marketing fell on their shoulders, but some help is better than none if you know little to nothing about marketing.
  8. Cost: If you choose self-publishing, you will bear the cost of publishing your book from editing and cover design to print production and marketing. You’ll foot the entire bill. Most successful authors who traditionally publish also incur expenses (many hire PR firms and do a lot of their own marketing) but at least the publisher foots some of the bills.
  9. Prestige: The stigma of self-publishing is fading but it still exists. Some people just don’t respect self-publishing and will judge you and your book negatively if you haven’t gone through the gatekeepers. Some book reviewers will not review self-published work. Some book clubs won’t read self-published books. Some readers won’t buy them. Also, some publishing houses carry more prestige than others. If you need a stamp of literary approval to feel good about your book and if you want a shot at every available reader, traditional publishing is a better route for you.

Having said all that, there are just as many reasons to choose self-publishing as traditional publishing. We’ll explore reasons for choosing self-publishing in an upcoming post. Ideally, you’ll research both publishing methods and decide which is best for you and your book.

Have you ever tried to get your writing published through traditional channels? Have you self-published? Share your thoughts and experiences with publishing by leaving a comment and keep writing!

Pulling the Curtain Back from the Stigma of Self-Publishing

self-publishing stigma

Examining the stigma against self-publishing.

In recent years, self-publishing has become an acceptable way for authors to share their work with a readership. But just a few years ago, self-publishing was the last stop on the rejection train. Authors usually resorted to self-publishing only after dozens of failed attempts to land an agent or sell their work to a publisher. For this reason, self-published books carried a negative stigma, which is only now being shed.

Since most self-published books failed to pass the litmus test of the publishing industry’s gatekeepers, they were seen as universally unworthy. And in many cases, they were. Agents and editors won’t get on board with substandard books, so those books are less likely to get published.

But that doesn’t mean every rejected book is substandard or all writers who self-published did so because they couldn’t secure a publishing contract.

In fact, some of the most notable writers in the literary canon self-published: Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, Jane Austen, William Blake, Benjamin Franklin, Edgar Allan Poe, Gertrude Stein, Mark Twain, and L. Frank Baum. And if that’s not enough, Wikipedia lists even more self-published authors and self-published bestsellers.

The Truth About Rejection

The truth is that plenty of books that went on to great success were initially rejected. Lolita was “overwhelmingly nauseating.” Jonathan Livingston Seagull was “ridiculous.” George Orwell’s Animal Farm, which critiqued communism, was rejected by none other than T.S. Elliott, who said “We have no conviction that this is the right point of view from which to criticize the political situation at the current time.”

Anne Frank’s diary was rejected sixteen times. Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone was rejected eight times. Chicken Soup for the Soul was rejected by over 100 publishers before its authors went ahead and published it themselves. (Source: Flavorwire)

Let all these instances of rejection and self-publication be a reminder: agents and editors are only human. They read ridiculous amounts of prose and are tasked with picking only the ones that, in their estimation, have the best chances of becoming bestsellers. And they make mistakes. I’m sure the eight publishers who rejected Harry Potter will carry the weight of that mistake for the rest of their lives.

When you stop to think about the jobs that agents and editors perform, it’s easy to understand why so many great books slip through their hands. Maybe an agent read a book when he was tired, hungry, or stressed out. Maybe he just read three other books with similar storylines. Maybe the story touched a bad nerve. Maybe the editor who read a book loved it but didn’t feel like his publishing house could find an audience for it. Maybe he disagrees with the narrative’s philosophy. Maybe he’s looking for a zombie story.

The fact is that just because a book is rejected five, ten, a hundred times does not mean it’s bad or that it can never be successful.

The Other Truth About Rejection

We can’t escape the other truth about rejection, which is that some books really are rejected because they’re not very good. While authors must remember that a rejection doesn’t mean their book can’t go on to find success, they also have to figure out whether their book has the potential to succeed.

The best way to gauge the merit of your own work is to be well read. If you haven’t absorbed a hearty portion of the literary canon, you have nothing to gauge your own work against. You need to read good books, bad books, mediocre books, and great books and learn to identify that je ne sais quoi that differentiates them.

The New Era of Self-Publishing

If you ask me, the new era of self-publishing was inevitable. Its fate was sealed when Internet access became widespread. Of course authors are going to self-publish their work now, and in droves. Before we had all this fancy technology, self-publishing required a hefty investment. You’d have to find a printer and pay for a run. There was no print-on-demand and there were no ebooks. You placed an order — 500 books, 1,000 books, 15,000 books. You paid for all those books and then you went out and sold them, trying to recoup your investment and turn a profit. Nowadays, most self-published authors hire an editor or proofreader, cover designers, and maybe a PR consultant. Back then, you had to do all that, plus pay thousands of dollars for copies of your book. Technology changed all that, making it easy and affordable to self-publish.

Some people have decried the wave of self-publishing that’s sweeping across the Internet. Some terrible works are getting published! We need the gatekeepers of the publishing industry to weed out the bad books! I think that’s nonsense. Let the market — let the readers — decide which books they want to buy and read. Let authors take the risk, put their work out there, and see what happens. It’s an ideal business model that creates a broader and fairer playing ground.

And the best part is that it puts the power of publishing into the hands of the authors and readers, removing middle men who controlled what got published and what didn’t (which is kind of a scary thought).

A Living Example

In 2011, Hugh Howey self-published Wool, a short story, through Amazon’s Kindle Direct program. As it grew in popularity, he developed the story into a series (check out the complete Wool (Omnibus), and in 2012, he sold the film rights to 20th Century Fox. Film legends Ridley Scott and Steven Zaillian have both expressed interest in working on the project. Most recently, Howey entered a contract with Simon and Schuster, who will distribute Wool to retailers in the the US and Canada. And for the record, the contract allows Howey to continue distributing Wool online himself.

And Wool was never even rejected. Howey made a conscious decision to self-publish. Here’s what he said about self-publishing just a few days ago:

“I never shopped Wool to agents. After my first book release with a small press, I decided that self-publishing was for me. I never looked back. It wasn’t until agents and publishers began approaching me that I engaged in a dialogue. I actually predicted this before it happened. Over a year ago, I told anyone who would listen that every book should *begin* as a self-published work. Let it prove itself in the market and then allow agents and publishers to approach you. I was mocked for espousing this view, but it has now become more and more common. DBW recently posted a story about the 300 6-figure advances in 2012, and how 45 of them were for books previously self-published. That’s a healthy percentage.” (Source: Goodreads)

Of course, self-publishing isn’t for everyone, but it’s certainly an option all writers should explore. In upcoming posts, we’ll explore the benefits and drawbacks of both traditional and self-publishing.

Have you considered self-publishing or given any thought as to whether you want to choose traditional or self-publishing? Have you read any self-published works recently? Share your thoughts on self-publishing by leaving a comment, and keep writing!

Getting Published in Literary Magazines and Journals

getting published in literary magazines

Tips for getting published in literary magazines and journals.

One of the best ways to get published early in your writing career is to submit your work to literary magazines and journals.

There are publications for every form, genre, and style of writing, and most of these publications have fairly simple submission processes that you can complete online. Some are explicitly looking for young or new writers.

If you’re fiction writer, poet, or essayist, then these publications could be a great way for you start your career as a published author.

The Benefits of Getting Published in Literary Magazines and Journals

If you hope to build a career as a published author, starting with literary magazines and journals is a good way to prepare yourself for publishing books in the future. Even if you intend to eventually self-publish your work, something I suspect more and more writers are considering these days, starting with literary journals has some benefits.

  • When you submit your work, you need to follow the publications’ guidelines, many of which force to polish your work and properly format your documents.
  • Many publications require that you write a brief letter of introduction, similar to a cover letter, which builds your professionalism as a writer.
  • You’ll probably have to include a personal bio, something all published authors need if they expect to establish a viable career.
  • Your publication credits (also called clips) can boost your reputation and credibility among other writers, the publishing industry, and readers.
  • All of these magazines and journals have readers, something you’ll need as a writer. By getting published in their pages, you are exposing your work to a broader readership. Some of these readers may become the first fans of your work.
  • Through the process of submitting, you’ll (hopefully) read these magazines and journals. You’ll discover other writers. You may even develop relationships with your fellow writers or with the publications’ editors. In other words, it can be a networking opportunity.
  • When your work gets rejected and you keep trying, it can strengthen your resolve and thicken your skin. The submission and rejection process is a test of your fortitude!
  • When your work gets accepted and published, you’ll enjoy a sense of validation and acceptance.
  • If you intend on building a career through traditional publishing, these publishing credits can help you land an agent or get your work read by editors at publishing houses.

How to Get Started

The first step is to find literary magazines and journals and familiarize yourself with them. You won’t find these publications in the checkout line at your local grocery store. You can find them in bookstores and of course, online. Here’s a comprehensive list with short descriptions and links to tons of publications.

Look for publications that accept work in your preferred form (poetry, fiction, nonfiction). Make sure that any publications you decide to target are a match to your genre. You wouldn’t want to send a science fiction story to a romance zine. Furthermore, you’ll want to read the publications for style and submit to the ones that are a good match to your style of writing. For example, some poetry journals prefer abstract while others prefer concrete. Do not randomly pick publications off a list and submit your work. You need to read through the publication, thoroughly. Chances are, if you are personally compelled by the work in the publication, it’s a good match for you.

If you do nothing else, read the submission guidelines carefully. This can’t be emphasized enough: make sure you review the guidelines carefully and follow the requirements to the letter. Failing to do so could mean a rejection that isn’t even based on the quality or substance of your writing!

Are You Ready to Get Published?

Getting your work published is not easy, but it’s well worth the effort. We’re writers, so we’d rather be writing. But the reality is that if we want our writing to be more than a hobby — if we want it to be a career, we have to learn to wear many hats, like marketing ourselves. Going through the submission process might feel like it’s taking us away from our writing, but it’s actually an integral step toward success.

If you’re ready to get serious about your writing, then check out these tips for submitting your writing, and then start looking for publications that are a good match for your poems, stories, and essays.

Have you ever submitted your work to a literary magazine or journal? Have you received a lot of rejections? Did you get published? Share your experiences by leaving a comment.